Pronunciation: Online audio
- acetylsalicylic acid
- Apo-ASA [Canada]
- Apo-ASEN [Canada]
- Arthrinol [Canada]
- Arthrisin [Canada]
- Artria S.R [Canada]
- Astrin [Canada]
- Bayer Aspirin
- Bayer Timed-Release Arthritic Pain Formula
- Coryphen [Canada]
- 8-Hour Bayer Timed-Release
- Entrophen [Canada]
- Headache Tablets [Canada]
- Norwich Aspirin
- Novasen [Canada]
- PMS-ASA [Canada]
- St. Joseph Adult Chewable Aspirin
- Therapy Bayer
- Inflammatory disorders including:
- Rheumatoid arthritis,
- Mild to moderate pain.
- Prophylaxis of transient ischemic attacks and MI.
Adjunctive treatment of Kawasaki disease.
- Produce analgesia and reduce inflammation and fever by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins.
- Decreases platelet aggregation.
- Reduction of inflammation.
- Reduction of fever.
- Decreased incidence of transient ischemic attacks and MI.
Absorption: Well absorbed from the upper small intestine; absorption from enteric-coated preparations may be unreliable; rectal absorption is slow and variable.
Distribution: Rapidly and widely distributed; crosses the placenta and enters breast milk.
Metabolism and Excretion: Extensively metabolized by the liver; inactive metabolites excreted by the kidneys. Amount excreted unchanged by the kidneys depends on urine pH; as pH increases, amount excreted unchanged increases from 2–3% up to 80%.
Half-life: 2–3 hr for low doses; up to 15–30 hr with larger doses because of saturation of liver metabolism.
TIME/ACTION PROFILE (analgesia/fever reduction)
|PO||5–30 min||1–3 hr||3–6 hr|
- Hypersensitivity to aspirin or other salicylates
- Cross-sensitivity with other NSAIDs may exist (less with nonaspirin salicylates)
- Bleeding disorders or thrombocytopenia
- Pedi: May increase risk of Reye's syndrome in children or adolescents with viral infections.
Use Cautiously in:
- History of GI bleeding or ulcer disease
- Chronic alcohol use/abuse
- Severe hepatic or renal disease
- OB: Salicylates may have adverse effects on fetus and mother and should be avoided during pregnancy, especially during the 3rd trimester
- Lactation: Safety not established
- Geri: ↑ risk of adverse reactions especially GI bleeding; more sensitive to toxic levels.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
GI: GI BLEEDING, dyspepsia, epigastric distress, nausea, abdominal pain, anorexia, hepatotoxicity, vomiting
Hemat: anemia, hemolysis
Derm: rash, urticaria
Misc: ALLERGIC REACTIONS INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS AND LARYNGEAL EDEMA
* CAPITALS indicate life-threatening.
Italics indicate most frequent.
- May ↑ the risk of bleeding with warfarin, heparin, heparin-like agents, thrombolytic agents, dipyridamole,ticlopidine, clopidogrel, tirofiban, or eptifibatide, although these agents are frequently used safely in combination and in sequence.Ibuprofen:
- Ibuprofen: may negate the cardioprotective antiplatelet effects of low-dose aspirin.
- May ↑ risk of bleeding with cefoperazone, cefotetan, and valproic acid.
- May ↑ activity of penicillins, phenytoin, methotrexate, valproic acid, oral hypoglycemic agents, and sulfonamides.
- Urinary acidification ↑ reabsorption and may ↑ serum salicylate levels.
- Alkalinization of the urine or the ingestion of large amounts of antacids ↑ excretion and ↓ serum salicylate levels.
- May blunt the therapeutic response to diuretics and ACE inhibitors.
- ↑ risk of GI irritation with NSAIDs.
↑ anticoagulant effect and bleeding risk with arnica, chamomile, clove, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.
Foods capable of acidifying the urine (see food sources for specific nutrients) may ↑ serum salicylate levels.
PO: Rect: (Adults) 325–1000 mg q 4–6 hr (not to exceed 4 g/day). Extended-release tablets–650 mg q 8 hr or 800 mg q 12 hr.
PO: Rect: (Children 2–11 yr): 10–15 mg/kg/dose q 4–6 hr; maximum dose: 4 g/day.
PO: (Adults) 2.4 g/day initially; increased to maintenance dose of 3.6–5.4 g/day in divided doses (up to 7.8 g/day for acute rheumatic fever).
PO: Children 60–100 mg/kg/day in divided doses (up to 130 mg/kg/day for acute rheumatic fever).
Prevention of Transient Ischemic Attacks
PO: (Adults) 50–325 mg once daily.
Prevention of Myocardial Infarction/Antiplatelet effects
PO: (Adults) 80–325 mgonce dailySuspected acute MI-160 mg as soon as MI is suspected.
PO: Children 3–10 mg/kg/day given once daily (round dose to a convenient amount).
PO: Children 80–100 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses until fever resolves; may be followed by maintenance dose of 3–5 mg/kg/day as a single dose for up to 8 wk.
Availability (generic available)
Tablets: 81 mgOTC, 162.5 mgOTC, 325 mgOTC, 500 mgOTC, 650 mgOTC, 975 mgOTC
Chewable tablets: 80 mgOTC, 81 mgOTC
Chewing gum: 227 mgOTC
Dispersible tablets: 325 mgOTC, 500 mgOTC
Enteric-coated (delayed-release) tablets: 80 mgOTC, 165 mgOTC, 300 mgOTC, 325 mgOTC, 500 mgOTC, 600 mgOTC, 650 mgOTC, 975 mgOTC
Extended-release tablets: 325 mgOTC, 650 mgOTC, 800 mg
Delayed-release capsules: 325 mgOTC, 500 mgOTC
Suppositories: 60 mgOTC, 120 mgOTC, 125 mgOTC, 130 mgOTC, 150 mgOTC, 160 mgOTC, 195 mgOTC, 200 mgOTC, 300 mgOTC, 320 mgOTC, 325 mgOTC, 600 mgOTC, 640 mgOTC, 650 mgOTC, 1.2 gOTC
In Combination with: antihistamines, decongestants, cough suppressantsOTC, and opioids. See combination drugs.
- Patients who have asthma, allergies, and nasal polyps or who are allergic to tartrazine are at an increased risk for developing hypersensitivity reactions.Pain:
- Assess pain and limitation of movement; note type, location, and intensity before and at the peak (see Time/Action Profile) after administration.Fever:
- Assess fever and note associated signs (diaphoresis, tachycardia, malaise, chills).
Lab Test Considerations:
Monitor hepatic function before antirheumatic therapy and if symptoms of hepatotoxicity occur; more likely in patients, especially children, with rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile arthritis, or pre-existing hepatic disease. May cause ↑ serum AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase, especially when plasma concentrations exceed 25 mg/100 mL. May return to normal despite continued use or dose reduction. If severe abnormalities or active liver disease occurs, discontinue and use with caution in future.
- Monitor serum salicylate levels periodically with prolonged high-dose therapy to determine dose, safety, and efficacy, especially in children with Kawasaki disease.
- May alter results of serum uric acid, urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), protirelin-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), urine hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) determinations, and radionuclide thyroid imaging.
- Prolongs bleeding time for 4–7 days and, in large doses, may cause prolonged prothrombin time. Monitor hematocrit periodically in prolonged high-dose therapy to assess for GI blood loss.
Monitor for the onset of tinnitus, headache, hyperventilation, agitation, mental confusion, lethargy, diarrhea, and sweating. If these symptoms appear, withhold medication and notify physician or other health care professional immediately.
- Use lowest effective dose for shortest period of time.
- PO: Administer after meals or with food or an antacid to minimize gastric irritation. Food slows but does not alter the total amount absorbed.
- Do not crush or chew enteric-coated tablets Do not take antacids within 1–2 hr of enteric-coated tablets. Chewable tablets may be chewed, dissolved in liquid, or swallowed whole. Some extended-release tablets may be broken or crumbled but must not be ground up before swallowing. See manufacturer's prescribing information for individual products.
- Instruct patient to take salicylates with a full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for 15–30 min after administration.Transient Ischemic Attacks or MI:
- Advise patient to report tinnitus; unusual bleeding of gums; bruising; black, tarry stools; or fever lasting longer than 3 days.
- Caution patient to avoid concurrent use of alcohol with this medication to minimize possible gastric irritation; 3 or more glasses of alcohol per day may increase the risk of GI bleeding. Caution patient to avoid taking concurrently with acetaminophen or NSAIDs for more than a few days, unless directed by health care professional to prevent analgesic nephropathy.
- Teach patients on a sodium-restricted diet to avoid effervescent tablets or buffered-aspirin preparations.
- Tablets with an acetic (vinegar-like) odor should be discarded.
- Advise patients on long-term therapy to inform health care professional of medication regimen before surgery. Aspirin may need to be withheld for 1 wk before surgery.
- Pedi: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns against giving aspirin to children or adolescents with varicella (chickenpox) or influenza-like or viral illnesses because of a possible association with Reye's syndrome.
- Advise patients receiving aspirin prophylactically to take only prescribed dose. Increasing the dose has not been found to provide additional benefits.
- Relief of mild to moderate discomfort.
- Increased ease of joint movement. May take 2–3 wk for maximum effectiveness.
- Reduction of fever.
- Prevention of transient ischemic attacks.
- Prevention of MI.