- Some products contain tartrazine, bisulfites, or alcohol and should be avoided in patients with known hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in:
- Head trauma;
- ↑ intracranial pressure;
- Severe renal, hepatic, or pulmonary disease;
- Seizure disorder;
- Adrenal insufficiency;
- History of substance abuse;
- Undiagnosed abdominal pain;
- Prostatic hyperplasia;
- Patients undergoing procedures that rapidly ↓ pain (cordotomy, radiation); long-acting agents should be discontinued 24 hr before and replaced with short-acting agents;
- Geri: Geriatric or debilitated patients (dose reduction suggested);
- OB: Lactation: Avoid chronic use; has been used during labor but may cause respiratory depression in the newborn;
- Pedi: Epidural liposomal injection only-not recommended;
- Pedi: Neonates and infants <3 mo (more susceptible to respiratory depression);
- Pedi: Neonates (oral solution contains sodium benzoate which can cause potentially fatal gasping syndrome).