asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
High Alert Medication: This medication bears a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when it is used in error.
Part of combination chemotherapy in the treatment of ALL and lymphoblastic lymphoma in patients who developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.
- Catalyst in the conversion of asparagine (an amino acid) to aspartic acid and ammonia.
- Depletes asparagine in leukemic cells.
Death of leukemic and lymphoma cells.
Absorption: 37% absorbed following IM administration unknown.
Distribution: Remains in the intravascular space. Poor penetration into the CSF.
Metabolism and Excretion: Slowly sequestered in the reticuloendothelial system.
Half-life: 15–18 hr.
- Previous hypersensitivity;
- History of pancreatitis with prior asparaginase therapy;
- History of serious thrombosis or hemorrhagic events with prior asparaginase therapy;
- OB: Pregnancy;
- Lactation: Lactation.
Use Cautiously in:
- Rep: Women of reproductive potential.
- Pedi: Children <1 mo (safety and effectiveness not established).
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
F and E: dehydration
GI: abdominal pain, constipation, ↓ appetite, diarrhea, hyperbilirubinemia, ↑ liver enzymes, nausea, PANCREATITIS, stomatitis, vomiting
Hemat: bleeding, thrombotic events
Neuro: headache, insomnia, peripheral neuropathy
Misc: fatigue, fever, HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS(including anaphylaxis and angioedema) , infection
* CAPITALS indicate life-threatening.
Underline indicate most frequent.
IM (Adults and Children ≥1 mo): Substitution for calaspargase pegol– 25 mg/m2 every 48 hr for 11 doses substituted for each dose of calaspargase pegol or 25 mg/m2 on Monday morning and Wednesday morning, then 50 mg/m2 on Friday afternoon (administer 9 doses to substitute for each dose of calaspargase pegol. Substitution for pegaspargase– 25 mg/m2 every 48 hr for 7 doses substituted for each dose of pegaspargase or 25 mg/m2 on Monday morning and Wednesday morning, then 50 mg/m2 on Friday afternoon (administer 6 doses to substitute for each dose of pegaspargase.
Solution for injection: 10 mg/0.5 mL
- Monitor vital signs before and periodically during therapy; may cause fever.
- Monitor for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, ↑ serum amylase) during therapy. If abdominal pain >72 hrs and serum amylase ↑ ≥2.0 x upper limit of normal occur, discontinue therapy. If mild pancreatitis occurs, withhold asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi until symptoms and serum amylase return to normal; then restart.
- Monitor for hypersensitivity reaction (urticaria, diaphoresis, facial swelling, joint pain, hypotension, bronchospasm). Epinephrine and resuscitation equipment should be readily available. If Grade 2 hypersensitivity reactions occur, treat the symptoms. If Grades 3 or 4 occur, discontinue therapy permanently.
Lab Test Considerations:
Verify a negative pregnancy test before starting therapy.
- Monitor CBC and coagulation studies before and periodically throughout therapy. May ↓ fibrinogen, protein C activity, protein S activity, and anti-thrombin III. If uncomplicated thrombosis occurs, treat with appropriate antithrombotic therapy and withhold asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi until symptoms resolve; then resume therapy while continuing antithrombotic therapy. If severe or life-threatening thrombosis occurs, discontinue therapy permanently and treat with appropriate antithrombotic therapy. If Grade 3 to 4 hemorrhage occurs, hold medication. Evaluate for coagulopathy and consider clotting factor replacement as needed. Resume therapy with the next scheduled dose if bleeding is controlled.
- Monitor serum bilirubin, AST, ALT every 2–3 wks. If total bilirubin > 3x to ≤ 10x the ULN, hold medication until total bilirubin levels decrease to ≤ 1.5x the ULN. If total bilirubin > 10x the ULN, discontinue therapy and do not make up missed doses. Liver function test results usually return to normal after therapy. May cause pancreatitis; monitor frequently for ↑ amylase or glucose. If Grades 2 to 4 pancreatitis occur, hold medication for elevations in lipase or amylase > 2x the ULN, or for symptomatic pancreatitis. Resume treatment when lipase and amylase are < 1.5x the ULN and symptoms are resolved. Discontinue therapy permanently if clinical necrotizing or hemorrhagic pancreatitis is confirmed.
- Monitor blood glucose prior to and periodically during therapy. May cause hyperglycemia treatable with fluids and insulin.
- High Alert: Fatalities have occurred with chemotherapeutic agents. Before administering, clarify all ambiguous orders; double-check single, daily, and course-of-therapy dose limits; have second practitioner independently double check original order and dose calculations.
- Solution should be prepared in a biologic cabinet. Wear gloves, gown, and mask while handling medication. Discard equipment in specially designated containers.
- Before administration, premedicate with acetaminophen, an H1 receptor blocker (such as diphenhydramine), and an H2 receptor blocker (such as famotidine) 30-60 minutes before administration to decrease risk and severity of hypersensitivity reactions.
- Rylaze does not require reconstitution. Solution is opalescent, colorless to slightly yellow. Do not use solutions that are cloudy, discolored, or contain particulate matter. Solution is stable for up to 4 hr at room temperature.
- IM Limit volume to 2 mL at each injection site. If volume >2 mL, use multiple injection sites. Rotate injection sites. Do not inject into scar tissue or areas that are reddened, inflamed, or swollen.
- Explain purpose of medication to patient.
- Instruct patient to notify health care professional if signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction, pancreatitis, thrombosis or hemorrhage (headache, arm or leg swelling, shortness of breath, chest pain) or hyperglycemia (excess thirst or increase in frequency or volume of urination), occur.
- Rep: May cause fetal harm. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective nonhormonal contraception during and for 3 mos after last dose and to avoid breastfeeding during and for 1 wk after last dose. Advise female patients to notify health care professional promptly if pregnancy is planned or suspected, or if breast feeding.
- Emphasize need for periodic lab tests to monitor for side effects.
Improvement of hematologic status in patients with ALL and lymphoblastic lymphoma.