amprenavir

General

**Off Market Drug**
This medication is no longer available in the United States. Information provided here is for reference purposes only.

Pronunciation:
am-pren-a-veer


Trade Name(s)

  • Agenerase

Ther. Class.
antiretrovirals

Pharm. Class.
protease inhibitors

Indications

Management of HIV infection in combination with other antiretrovirals.

Action

Inhibits the action of HIV protease and prevents the cleavage of viral polyproteins.

Therapeutic Effect(s):

Increased CD4 cell counts and decreased viral load with subsequent slowed progression of HIV and its sequelae.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Rapidly absorbed after oral administration.

Distribution: 90%; bound to plasma proteins.

Metabolism and Excretion: Mostly metabolized by the liver; <3% excreted unchanged by the kidneys.

Half-life: 7.1–10.6 hr.

TIME/ACTION PROFILE (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POrapid 1–2 hr8–12 hr

Contraindication/Precautions

Contraindicated in:

  • Hypersensitivity
  • Concurrent use of bepredil, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, midazolam, and triazolam (may cause serious, potentially fatal toxicity)
  • Concurrent use of rifampin or supplemental vitamin E
  • If amprenavir is used concurrently with ritonavir, flecainide and propafenone are contraindicated
  • Lactation: Potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants (and potential HIV transmission) .

Use Cautiously in:

  • Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides
  • Hepatic impairment (dosage reduction required)
  • Hemophilia (may increase bleeding)
  • Diabetes mellitus (may worsen hyperglycemia)
  • OB:  Safety not established.

Exercise Extreme Caution in:

Concurrent use of amiodarone, parenteral lidocaine, tricyclic antidepressants, or quinidine (may produce potentially life-threatening drug interactions).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

CNS: depression/mood disorder

GI: diarrhea, nausea, taste disorders, vomiting

Derm: rash

Endo: hyperglycemia

Metabolic: hyperlipidemia, redistribution/accumulation of body fat

* CAPITALS indicate life-threatening.
Underline indicate most frequent.

Interactions

Drug-Drug

Drug-Natural Products:

Use with  St. John's wort  may cause decreased drug levels and effectiveness.

Drug-Food:

Ingestion of a high-fat meal may decrease absorption.

Route/Dosage

PO (Adults  >13 yr >50 kg): 1200 mg (eight 150-mg capsules) twice daily with other antiretrovirals.

PO (Children  4–13 yr or Adolescents 13–16 yr ≤50 kg): Capsules– 20 mg/kg twice daily or 15 mg/kg 3 times daily with other antiretrovirals (not to exceed 2400 mg/day).

Hepatic Impairment 
PO (Adults): Child-Pugh score 5–8– 450 mg twice daily with other antiretrovirals;  Child-Pugh score 9–12– 300 mg twice daily with other antiretrovirals.

Availability

Both capsules and oral solution contain amounts of vitamin E that exceed the Reference Daily Intake (RDI)

Capsules: 150 mg

Assessment

  • Assess patient for change in severity of HIV symptoms and for symptoms of opportunistic infections throughout therapy.
  • Assess patient for allergy to sulfonamides. May exhibit cross-sensitivity.
  • Assess patient for skin reactions throughout therapy. Reactions may be severe and life threatening. Discontinue therapy if severe reactions or moderate rashes with systemic symptoms occur.

Lab Test Considerations:

  • Monitor viral load and CD4 cell count regularly during therapy.
  • May cause increased serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.

Potential Diagnoses

Implementation

  • Administer antacids or didanosine at least 1 hr before or after amprenavir.
  • PO May be administered with or without food. Avoid high-fat meals, which may decrease absorption. Capsules may be stored at room temperature; do not refrigerate or freeze.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Emphasize the importance of taking amprenavir exactly as directed. It must always be used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Do not take more than prescribed amount and do not stop taking without consulting health care professional. If a dose is missed, take as soon as remembered within 4 hr, then return to regular schedule. If more than 4 hr from scheduled dose, omit dose and take next scheduled dose; do not double doses.
  • Instruct patient that amprenavir should not be shared with others.
  • Inform patient that amprenavir does not cure AIDS or prevent associated or opportunistic infections. Amprenavir does not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV to others through sexual contact or blood contamination. Caution patient to use a condom and to avoid sharing needles or donating blood to prevent spreading the AIDS virus to others. Advise patient that the long-term effects of amprenavir are unknown at this time.
  • Emphasize the importance of providing health care professional with accurate current drug history and notifying health care professional before taking any prescription or OTC medications because of potentially serious drug interactions. Vitamin E supplements should be avoided during amprenavir therapy.
  • Some hormonal contraceptives decrease amprenavir levels and effectiveness; advise patient to use a nonhormonal form of contraception during therapy.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash occurs.
  • Emphasize the importance of regular follow-up exams and blood counts to determine progress and monitor for side effects.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Delayed progression of AIDS and decreased opportunistic infections in patients with HIV.
  • Decrease in viral load and increase in CD4 cell counts.
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